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Women Employment in Unorganised Sector in India: An Empirical Analysis


  • Department of Economics, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226025, India


Women constitute nearly a third of the workforce in India. In 2011, out of a total workforce of 481.7 million, 149.9 million or 31 per cent are women. The present study of women workers is based on analysis of Census data. It describes the variations in work participation rate of men and women by States and regions and the distribution of workers among the principal occupational categories.

The macro overview of occupational structure of female work participation shows that a larger share of women workers is still in primary sector in India. Women's employment is much more concentrated in agriculture than men's; nearly 65 per cent of employed women work in agriculture compared to 50 per cent of employed men.

A multiple linear regression model is used to identify the factors determining women's participation in different types of economic activities, i.e., female literacy rate, per capita income, sex ratio and female work participation rate. A correlation matrix is also calculated to find out the relation between female WPR and female literacy rate, per capita income, sex ratio. The results reveal that sex ratio is positively related while per capita income and female literacy rate are negatively related to female WPR. It may be because of majority of women moving into the labour force during crisis or distress and withdraw when economic conditions of the household are better. There is a requirement of replacing the traditional value system, which is based on inequality of sexes where females play a subordinate role.

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