Prevalence and Determinants Of Intergenerational Métiers Mobility of the Labourers of Assam Tea Gardens
Keywords:Tea Garden Labourer, Occupational Mobility, Transition Matrices, Multinomial Logistic Regression, Assam.
The study aims to explore the intergenerational métiers mobility pattern of Assam tea garden labourers. Simultaneously, the current study unfolds the various factors responsible for this phenomenon. This predominantly empirical study utilises the Transition matrices and Multinomial Logistic Regression on 251 household-level primary data to explore the objectives. The empirical results disclose that horizontal motility is more prominent than vertical motility among the tea garden labourers of Assam. Various social-economic-demographic factors, like years of education, annual household expenditures, sex, and the number of dependents influence the vertical motility among the labourers of Assam tea gardens. The study also offer suitable policy prescriptions.
Akresh, I. R. (2006). Occupational Mobility among Legal Immigrants to the United States. International Migration Review, 40(4), 854–884. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00046.x
Bartus, T. (2005). Estimation of Marginal Effects Using Margeff. The Stata Journal, 5(3), 309-329.
Bhowmik, S. K. (2011). Ethnicity and Isolation: Marginalization of Tea Plantation Workers. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 4(2), 235-253.
Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American Occupational Structure. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Buragohain, D. (2018). Intergenerational Occupational Mobility among the Tea Garden Labourers in Undivided Sonitpur District of Assam. International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews, 7 (3), 364-370
Caballé, J. (2016). Intergenerational mobility: Measurement and the role of borrowing constraints and inherited tastes. SERIEs, 7(4), 393–420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13209-016-0149-2
Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2010). Microeconometrics using Stata (Vol. 2). College Station, TX: Stata Press.
Checchi, D. (1996). Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Occupations, In Corso Di Pubblicazione in T. Dunn. In Proceedings of the 2 nd GSOEP conference.
Duncan, O. D., & Hodge, R. W. (1963). Education and Occupational Mobility: A Regression Analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 68(6), 629-644.
Economic Survey of Assam, 2014-15: Published by Government of Assam, Planning and Development Department, Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Retrieve May 5, 2020from: https:// des.assam.gov.in. on.
Goswami, P. K. (2016). Assam Statistical Handbook.2016. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Assam. Government of Assam. Sonitpur District, District website: https://sonitpur.gov.in.
Groes, F., Kircher, P., & Manovskii, I. (2015). The U-shapes of Occupational Mobility. The Review of Economic Studies, 82(2), 659-692.
Hogben, L. (1987). “Elementary Linear Algebra.”West Publishing Company, St. Paul, MN, 81-92.
Hout, M. (1984). Status, autonomy, and training in occupational mobility. American Journal of Sociology, 89 (6), 1379-1409.
International Labour Office (ILO). (2003). Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2003.International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland.
Kambourov, G., & Manovskii, I. (2009). Occupational Mobility and Wage Inequality. The Review of Economic Studies, 76(2), 731-759.
Kemeny, J.G and Snell, J.L. (1960). Finite Markov Chains. Princeton: Van Nostrand.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Laskar, N., & Thappa, S. (2015). A Study on the Present Scenario of Tea Industry in Assam-Challenges Ahead. Ind. J. Appl. Res, 5, 533.
Litwak, E. (1960). Geographic Mobility and Extended Family Cohesion. American Sociological Review, 25 (3), 385. https://doi.org/10.2307/2092085
Lowe, G. S. (1980). Women, Work and the Office: The Feminization of Clerical Occupations in Canada, 1901-1931. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 5(4), 361-381.
Lucas Jr, R. E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22 (1), 3-42.
Maity, S. (2019). Financial Inclusion and Multidimensional Poverty Reduction through Self-Help-Group-led Microfinance: Evidence from Bodoland, Assam, India. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 30(3), 152-173.
Maity, S., & Sarania, R. (2017). Does Microfinance Alleviate Poverty and Inequality? Studying Self-Help Groups in Bodoland, Assam. Development in Practice, 27(7), 1006-1019.
Maity, S., & Sinha, A. (2021). Social Environment of Elderly Living Accommodations and Its Determinants: Insight from Northeast India. Advances in Gerontology, 11(1), 8-21.
Mishra, D. K., Sarma, A., & Upadhyay, V. (2011). Invisible chains? Crisis in The Tea Industry and the ‘Unfreedom’of Labour in Assam’s Tea Plantations. Contemporary South Asia, 19(1), 75-90.
Piketty, T. (1995). Social Mobility and Redistributive Politics. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3), 551-584.
Prais, S. J. (1955). Measuring Social Mobility. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General), 118(1), 56-66.
Prais, S.J. (1955a). Measuring Social Mobility. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Part I, 118:56-66.
Prais,S.J.(1955b). The Formal Theory of Social Mobility. Population Studies 9:72-81.
Reddy, A. B., & Swaminathan, M. (2014). Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Rural India: Evidence from Ten Villages. Review of Agrarian Studies, 4(1), 94-134.
Romer, P. M. (1989). Human Capital And Growth: Theory and Evidence (Working Paper No. 3173). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w3173
Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5, Part 2), S71-S102.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1931). The Theory of the Business Cycle. Keizaigaku Ronshu (Journal of Economics), 4.
Government of Assam, India. (2016). Statistical Handbook of Assam, 2016, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Guwahati.
Statistical Handbook | Directorate of Economics and Statistics | Retrieved May 8, 2023, from https:// des.assam.gov.in/portlets/statistical-handbook
Tea Board India. Official Website: http://www.teaboard.gov.in.
Tongia, R., Sehgal, A., & Kamboj, P. (2020). Future of Coal in India: Smooth Transition or Bumpy Road Ahead? Notion Press.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric Analysis of Cross-section and Panel Data. MIT Press.