Second Home Tourism and Agriculture in Rural Areas: Examining the Effects of Second Homes on Agricultural Resources in Northern Iran


  • Fazileh Dadvar-Khani Professor, Department of Human Geography, University of Tehran and Visiting Scholar at York University



Second Home Tourism, Rural Tourism, Environmental Impacts, Agriculture, Iran


Second home tourism leads to new economic opportunities for local communities, and presents challenges for existing economic sectors in rural areas such as agriculture and l ivestock; it also fosters differing perceptions about the impact of appropriate development paths within rural areas. Despite the economic importance of second home tourism and its profound and often negative effects on the agriculture, no focused research of phenomenon has yet been conducted in Iran. The study aims to investigate second-home tourism in Iran with special reference to the perceptions of its positive and negative effects amongst second homeowners and local residents in the rural areas. The data were collected from 60 local household residents and 60 second homeowners randomly chosen. The data were first gathered through questionnaire, which was then used to analyse the second home tourism impacts on agriculture from the perception of tourism stakeholders. The research proves that uncontrolled second home development negatively affects natural attractions and agricultural resources in mountainous areas of Babol district, and overall northern Iran. Thus, there is more conflict existing between the two industries rather than synergy. Thereby, controlling second home tourism is one of the key factors for sustainable rural and agricultural development in the area.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Dadvar-Khani, F. (2019). Second Home Tourism and Agriculture in Rural Areas: Examining the Effects of Second Homes on Agricultural Resources in Northern Iran. Journal of Rural Development, 38(1), 123–143.


Asiedu, A. B., & Gbedema, T. K. (2011), The Nexus between Agriculture and Tourism in Ghana: A Case of Unexploited Development Potential, In: R. M. Torres & J. H. Momsen (Eds.), Tourism and Agriculture: New Geographies of Consumption, Production and Rural Restructuring Hoboken, NJ: Routledge.

Belisle, F.J. (1980), Hotel Food Supply and Local Food Production in Jamaica: A Study in Tourism Geography, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, London: University Microfilms International.

Bishop,M (2010), Tourism as a Small-state Development Strategy: Peer Pessure in the Eastern Caribbean, Progress in Development Studies, 10 (2) (2010), pp. 99–114.

Bojanica,David C. and Melody Lo (2016) , A Comparison of the Moderating Effect of Tourism Reliance on the Economic Development for Islands and Other Countries in Tourism Management 53, 207-214.

Butler, R. and Hall, C.M. (1998), Conclusion: the Sustainability of Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas, In: Butler, R., Hall, C.M. and Jenkins, J. (Eds.) Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas, pp. 249-258. Chichester: Wiley.

Cabanne Claude (1992), The Effects of Tourism on Space and Society in the South Vendeen Littoral, from La Tranche-sur-Mer to the Bay of L’Aiguillon , in: Ocean & Coastal Management 18 (1992) 269-278.

Coppock, J.T. (1977), Second Homes: Curse or Blessing? Oxford: Pergamon.

Cox. Rosie, Lewis Holloway, Laura Venn, Moya Kneafsey and Elizabeth Dowler (2011), Adopting a Sheep in Abruzzo: Agritourism and the Preservation of Transhumance Farming in Central Italy ,In Torres Rebecca and Janet Momsen, Tourism and Agriculture, Routledge.

Dykes, Stephanie and Walmsley.A (2015), The Reluctant Tourist?An Exploration of Second Home Owners, Perceptions of their Impacts on North Cornwall. UK. in: European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation. Vol.96,Issue 20 PP 95-116.

Fadakar, Shahram, People’s Limited Access to Coast Line of Caspian Sea, In: Hamshahri Newspaper, January,16, 2016, News Code 321683.

Gallent, Nicke and Mark Tewdwr-Jones (2000), Rural Second Homes in Europe (Examining Housing Supply and Planning Control), Ashgate Publication.

Hall, C. M., &G€ossling, S. (Eds.). (2013), Sustainable Culinary Systems: Local Foods, Innovation, and Tourism and Hospitality, Abingdon: Routledge.

Halseth, G. (2004), The ‘Cottage´ Privilege: Increasingly Elite Landscapes of Second Homes in Canada. In C.M. Hall, and D.K. Müller (Eds.) Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground, pp. 35-54. Clevedon: Channel View.

Hoogendoorn and Visser (2004), Second Homes and Small Town (Re)Development: The Case of Clarens.

Journal of Family Ecology and Customer Sciences 32, pp. 105- 115.

Howkins, Alun (2003 ), The Death of Rural England: A Social History of the Countryside since 1900, Routlege.

Jansson, B. and Müller, D.K. (2003), FritidsboendeiKvarken.Umeå: Kvarkenrådet.

Lampietti, Julian A.,David G. Lugg,Philip Van der Celen,AmeliaBranczik (2009), The Changing Face of Rural Space, Agriculture and Rural Development in the Western Balkans, World Bank , Washington DC.

Ljungdahl, S. (1938), Sommar-Stockholm.Ymer 2-4, pp. 218-242.

Long Dianne. GijsbertHoogendoorn( 2014), Second Home Owner Perceptions of their Environmental Impacts: The Case of Hartbeespoort, Urban Forum, December 2014, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 517-530.

Maoa , Nara, Helena Grunfeldb , Terry DeLacya and David Chandlerc (2014), Economies of Tourism Destination in Agriculture and Tourism Linkage Constraints in the Siem Reap-Angkor Region of Cambodia,Tourism Geographies, Vol. 16, No. 4, 669686.

Marjavaara, Roger (2008), Second Home Tourism :The Root to Displacement in Sweden?, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå.

Muller, D. K., Hall, C. M. & Keen, D. (2004), Second Home Tourism Impact, Planning and Management. In: Hall, C. M. & Muller, D. K. (ed.) Tourism, Mobility, and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground. Chanel View Publ., p. 15-30.

Nordin, U. (1993), Fritidsbebyggelse. In Aldskogius, H. (Ed.).Kulturliv,RekreationochTurism. Sveriges Nationalatlas, pp. 72-79. Stockholm: SNA.

Pitkänen,Kati , Riikka Puhakka & Matthew Sawatzky (2011), The Role of Nature in the Place Meanings and Practices of Cottage Owners in Northern Environments, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol. 65, 175187. ISSN 0029-1951.

Rilla , Ellen. L.(2011), Tourism and Agricultural Viability: Case Studies from the United States and England ,In Torres Rebecca and Janet Momsen ,Tourism and Agriculture, Routledge, 173-190.

Saarinen, J., Rogerson, C., & Manwa, H. (2011), Tourism and Millennium Development Goals: Tourism for Global Development? Current Issues in Tourism, 14(3), 201-203.

Stefano, Lucia De ( 2004), Freshwater and Tourism in the Mediterranean, WWF. Rom, Italy.

Tombaugh L.W. (1970), Factors Influencing Vacation Home Locations. Journal of Leisure Research 2 (1), pp. 54-63.

Torre, Andre´ and Jean-Baptiste Traversac (2011),Territorial Governance Local Development, Rural Areas and Agrofood Systems, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.