Assessing Potential for Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:An Option for Sustainable Rural Domestic Water Supply in Arid Region of Haryana
AbstractWater supply to rural communities on a sustainable basis is an important development objective of India. Rainwater harvesting is one of the promising ways of supplementing the surface and underground scarce water resources in areas where existing water supply system is inadequate to meet the demand. The present study is an attempt to find out the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential at micro level. A primary survey of 763 households in an arid Dhani Mohabbatpur village of Hisar district in Haryana was conducted to assess the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential. Potential of rainwater supply from the rooftops of the village residents was estimated using the runoff coefficients for cemented and non-cemented built-up houses including public buildings namely, bus stand, panchayat ghar, child development centre, primary and high schools of the village. The study revealed that the potential of rooftop water harvesting in the village is encouraging and if harvested, it will supplement the water need of village residents. Moreover, it will also reduce the pressure on village public water supply as well as on surface and groundwater resources in the water scarce region.
How to Cite
Anonymous (2011), â€œReport of the Working Group on Rural Domestic Water and Sanitationâ€, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India, New Delhi, pp.19-21.
Aladenola, O.O., Adeboye, O.B (2010), â€œAssessing the Potential for Rainwater Harvestingâ€, Water Resources Management, 24, pp. 2129â€“2137.
Agarwal, A., Narain, S (1997), â€œDying Wisdom: Rise, Fall and Potential of Traditional Water Harvesting Systems in Indiaâ€, Centre for Science and Environment, 4th Citizenâ€™s Report, New Delhi.
Agarwal, A. (1998), â€œRainwater Harvesting in a New Age: When Modern Groundwater and River Exploitation has Reached its Limitsâ€, Water Harvesting, SIWI 1998 Paper No. 2, Stockholm, pp. 5â€“12.
Ariyabandu, R.D.S (2001), â€œVarieties of Water Harvestingâ€, in Making Water Everybodyâ€™s Business: Policy and Practice of Water Harvesting, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.
Baguma, D. Loiskandl, W. Darnhofer, I. Jung, H and Hauser, M (2010a), â€œKnowledge of Measures to Safeguard Harvested Rainwater Quality in Rural Domestic Householdsâ€, Journal of Water Health, 8, pp. 334â€“345.
Baguma, D. Loiskandl, W. and Jung, H. (2010b), â€œWater Management, Rainwater Harvesting and Predictive Variables in Rural Householdsâ€, Water Resources Management, 24, pp. 3333â€“3348.
Bhatia, S.P. Kumar, S (1987), â€œDistrict Gazetteer of Hisarâ€, Haryana Gazetteers Organisation, Chandigarh, pp. 1-298.
Cheng, C.L., Hong, Y.T (2004), â€œEvaluating Water Utilisation in Primary Schoolsâ€, Building and Environment, 39, pp. 837â€“845.
Cheng, C.L (2003), â€œEvaluating Water Conservation Measures for Green Building in Taiwanâ€, Building and Environment, 38, pp. 369â€“379.
Coombes, P.J., Argue, J.R., Kuczera, G (1999), â€œFig Tree Place: A Case Study in Water Sensitive Urban Development (WSUD)â€, Urban Water, 1, pp. 335â€“343.
Dash, S.K., Jenamani, R.K., Kalsi, S.R., Panda, S.K (2007), â€œSome Evidence of Climate Change in Twentieth Century Indiaâ€, Climatic Change, 85, pp. 299â€“321.
Deng, S (2003), â€œEnergy and Water Uses and Their Performance Explanatory Indicators in Hotels in Hong Kongâ€, Energy and Buildings, 35, pp. 775â€“784.
Efe, S.I (2006), â€œQuality of Rainwater Harvesting for Rural Communities in Delta State, Nigeriaâ€, The Environmentalist, 26, pp. 175â€“181.
Fewkes, A (1999), â€œThe Use of Rainwater for WC Flushing: the Field Testing of a Collection Systemâ€, Building and Environment, 34, pp. 765â€“772.
Gould, J., Nissen-Peterson, E (1999), â€œRainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply: Design, Construction and Implementationâ€, International Technology Publications, London, pp. 27-61.
Goel, A.K., Kumar, R (2004), â€œEconomic Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting in a Mountainous Watershed in Indiaâ€, Agricultural Water Management, 71, pp. 257â€“266.
Herrmann, T., Schmida, U (1999), â€œRainwater Utilisation in Germany: Efficiency, Dimensioning, Hydraulic and Environmental Aspects, Urban Water, 1, pp. 307â€“316.
IPCC (2007), â€œSummary for Policymakers: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Changeâ€, Valencia, Spain.
Ishaku, H.T., Majid, M.R., Johar, F (2012), â€œRainwater Harvesting: An Alternative to Safe Water Supply in Nigerian Rural Communitiesâ€, Water Resources Management, 26, pp. 295-305.
Islam, M.M., Chou, F.N.F., Kabir, M.R., Liaw, C.H. (2010), â€œRainwater: A Potential Alternative Source for Scarce Safe Drinking and Arsenic Contaminated Water in Bangladeshâ€, Water Resources Management, 24, pp. 3987-4008.
Jean-Marc, M.K., Akpofure, E.T., Jeanj, R.B (2007), â€œRainwater Harvesting to Improve Water Supply and Sanitation in Rural South Africaâ€, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 32, pp. 1050â€“1057.
Khan, M.A (1995), â€œTraditional Water Management Systems of Western Rajasthanâ€, Congress on Traditional Science and Technology of India, Anna University, Madras, India.
Kumar, R., Singh, R.D., Sharma, K.D (2005), â€œWater Resources of Indiaâ€, Current Science, 89, pp. 794-811.
Magyar, M.I., Mitchell, V.G., Ladson, A.R., and Diaper, C (2007), â€œAn Investigation of Rainwater Tanks Quality and Sediment Dynamicsâ€, Water Science and Technology, 56, pp. 21-28.
Melidis, P., Akratos, C.S., Tsihrintzis, V.A., Trikilidou, E (2007), â€œCharacterisation of Rain and Roof Drainage Water Quality in Xanthi, Greeceâ€, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 127, pp. 15-27.
Murad, A.A., Al Nuaimi, H., Al Hammadi, M (2007), â€œComprehensive Assessment of Water Resources in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)â€, Water Resources Management, 21, pp. 1449â€“1460.
Nyong, A.O., Kanaroglou, P.S. (1999), â€œDomestic Water Use in Rural Semi-arid Africa: A Case Study of Katarko Village in Northeastern Nigeriaâ€, Human Ecology, 27, pp. 537â€“555.
Opare, S. (2012), â€œRainwater Harvesting: An Option for Sustainable Rural Water Supply in Ghanaâ€, Geo Journal, 27, pp. 695-705.
Parmar, A. (2003), â€œHealth and Clean Water: Rainwater Retention Helps Green Rajasthanâ€, Women and Environments, 60â€“61, pp. 14â€“16.
Pitkanen, T., Miettinen, I.T., Nakari, U.M., Takkinen, J., Neumann, K., Siitonen, A., Kuusi, M., Holopainen, A., and HÃ¤nninen, M.L (2008), â€œFaecal Contamination of a Municipal Drinking Water Distribution System in Association with Campylobacter Jejuni Infectionsâ€™, Journal of Water Health, 6, pp. 365â€“376.
Salaymeh, A.A., Khatib, I.A.A., and Arafat, H.A (2011), â€œTowards Sustainable Water Quality: Management of Rainwater Harvesting Cisterns in Southern Palestineâ€, Water Resources Management, 25, pp. 1721-1736.
Singh, S., Gupta, S (2007), â€œGroundwater Information Booklet Hisar District, Haryanaâ€, Central Ground Water Board, North-western Region, Government of India, Chandigarh.
Tapir, N (1995), â€œImproved Roof Rainwater Harvesting in Primary Schoolsâ€, Paper Presented at the 7th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference, Beijing.
Thronthwaite, C.W (1948), â€œAn Approach towards a Rational Classification of Climateâ€, Geographical Review, 38, pp. 55-94.
UNDP (2010), â€œWhat Will It Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals?â€, An International Assessment, New York: United Nations.
Wheida, E., Verhoeven, R (2007), â€œAn Alternative Solution of the Water Shortage Problem in Libyaâ€, Water Resources Management, 21, pp. 961â€“982.
Wung, T.C., Lin, S. H., Huang, S. M (2006), â€œRainwater Reuse Supply and Demand Response in Urban Elementary School of Different Districts in Taipeiâ€, Resource Conservation and Recycling, 46, pp.149â€“167.
Zhu, K., Zhang, L., Hart, W., Liu, M., Chen, H (2004), â€œQuality Issues in Harvested Rainwater in Arid and Semi-arid Loess Plateau of Northern Chinaâ€, Journal of Arid Environments, 57, pp. 487â€“505.