Understanding Multi-Dimensions of Food and Nutrition Security in Odisha: A Methodological Approach Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Keywords:Food Security, Nutrition, Malnutrition, Priority Districts, Vulnerable Groups.
AbstractUsing a set of 21 indicators collected from multiple sources of secondary data, the present study aims to understand the multi-dimensions of food and nutrition security in Odisha. A composite food security index was constructed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to summarise the indicators. The analyses show that the total production of foodgrains is higher than the total requirement with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.1 per cent per annum. However, agricultural growth and recent economic development have not translated into healthy nutritional outcomes. Although there is a decline in trends in malnutrition among under-five children and adults, the current prevalence is still high, particularly in the northern and southern regions. In addition, the State is also marching towards a double burden of malnutrition with a high prevalence of low BMI and raising obesity among adults. As shown by the composite index, out of 30 districts, eight has been categorised as â€˜food secureâ€™, 14 districts fall in â€˜moderately food secureâ€™ and eight are found as â€˜food insecureâ€™. Hence, the government initiatives to implement the State nutrition policies and allocation of resources need to be done based on targeting priority districts and vulnerable regions.
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