The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Where Does India Stand?
Keywords:SDGs, Poverty, India, South Asia.
AbstractSustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is one of the most definite and widely accepted goals by United Nations (UNs) as a result of discourse and deliberations among the member States. The global goals that seek to consider three dimensions of poverty i.e., social, economic and environmental dimensions to improve people's lives and protect the planet for future generations. The article seeks to juxtapose 17 SDGs and the existing status of the goals of India in comparison with the South Asian countries. The study extensively used secondary sources of data to paint a quantitative picture of SDGs and the ranking given by various international agencies. Since the SDGs were adopted in September 2015, we may not get the impact as such. The purpose of the study is to give a summarised picture of goals so that future course of action can be drawn from the study. The study found nearly 21.9 per cent of the people in India live below poverty line. The situation of poverty is grim more particularly in rural areas, as around 25.7 per cent live below the poverty line. Among the South Asian countries, lowest poverty rate exists in Sri Lanka that stood at close to 7 per cent. The life expectancy rate of India is 68.3 years, which is even less than that of Bangladesh. The per capita income of India is $5,663 which is half of that of Sri Lanka. The literacy rate of India is 74 percent, Maldives on its way to achieve cent percent literacy rate. In the Human Development Index, India was ranked 131 among the list of countries. However, it is noteworthy that among South Asian countries, Sri Lanka and Maldives could figure themselves in 73 and 105, respectively. The Global Hunger Index report of 2016 ranking has placed India at 97 out of 118 countries. India performed poorly in the Gender Development Index, managed to perform better than Pakistan and Afghanistan. India will have go long way to achieve 100 per cent access to clean drinking water and electricity. Starting business in India still not a good proposition and huge inequality persists in the income distribution. Indiaâ€™s position in crime index and pollution index is also not up to the mark. Global collaboration, engaging with countries of expertise will help in addressing these issues.
How to Cite
Ali, I., and H. Son. (2007), "Defining and Measuring Inclusive Growth: Application to the Philippines," ERD Working Paper Series No. 98. ADB, Manila.
Brundtland, G.H. (1987), Report of the World Commission on Environment And Development: Our Common Future, Retrieved from http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf as on 16 July, 2017.
CIA (2015), The World Factbook, Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ as on 1 July, 2017.
Energy Information Commission (2016), Country Analysis Brief: India.
Global Hunger Index (2016), Getting to Zero Hunger, IFPRI.
Global Hunger Index (2017), The Inequalities of Hunger, IFPRI.
Government of India (2015), Report on the Fifth Annual Employment-Unemployment Survey, Ministry of Labour and Employment.
Habitat for Humanity (2015), "Together We Build," Retrieved from https://www.habitat.org/sites/default/files/annual-report-2015.pdf as on 16 July, 2017.
International Monetary Fund (2016), World Economic Outlook Database.
Lama. P.M. (2010), SAARC Programs and Activities Assessment, Monitoring, and Evaluation.
Ministry of Agriculture (2015), Annual Report. Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare.
NITI Aayog (2015), UN Summit for the Adoption of the Post 2015 Development Agenda.
Numbeo (2017), Pollution Index for Country 2017. Retrieved from https://www.numbeo.com/pollution/rankings_by_country.jsp as on 16 July, 2017.
OECD and World Bank (2012), Promoting Inclusive Growth: Challenges and Policies.
Planning Commission (2014), Report of the Expert Group to Review the Methodology for Measurement of Poverty, Government of India, New Delhi.
Press Information Bureau (2015), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Available at http://pib.nic.in/newsite/ PrintRelease.aspx?relid=132571
RIS (2016), "India and Sustainable Development Goals: The Way Forward," Retrieved from http://ris.org.in/pdf/India_and_Sustainable_Development_Goals_2.pdf as on 16 July, 2017.
SDG Index and Dashboards Report (2016), A Global Report, Available at http://www.sdgindex.org/assets/files/sdg_index_and_dashboards_compact.pdf
SDG Index and Dashboards Report (2017), Global Responsibilities, International Spillovers in Achieving the Goals.
Sen, A. (2000), Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny, Office of Environment and Social Development Asian Development Bank, Social Development Papers No. 1.
Singh, A.K. (2008), "What Japanese Civil Society can do? Towards 2008 G8 Summit in Japan," A Paper presented during the International Conference and Symposium.
Thapa, G. (2006), "Rural Poverty Reduction Strategy for South Asia," Working Paper Presented at an International Conference at the Australian National University.
UNDPa. (2016), Human Development Report, Human Development for Everyone, Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf as on 17 July, 2017.
UNDPb. (2016), Sustainable Development Goal Brochure, Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/brochure/SDGs_Booklet_Web_En.pdf as on 16 July, 2017.
UNECO (2000), "Gender Equality and Equity," A Summary Review of UNESCOâ€™s Accomplishments Since the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), Available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001211/121145e.pdf
UNICEF and WHO (2015), "Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water," Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Progress-on-Sanitation-and-Drinking-Water_234.pdf as on 16 July, 2017.
United Nations (2014), Report of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals.
United Nations (2015), "Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development," Retrieved from https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E as on 17 July, 2017.
United Nations (2016), "The Sustainable Development Goals Report," Retrieved from http://www.un.org.lb/Library/Assets/The-Sustainable-Development-Goals-Report-2016-Global.pdf as on 18 July, 2017.
World Bank (2016), "GINI Index and Access to Electricity (World Bank Estimates)," Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?end=2011&locations=IN&start=2011&view=bar as on 7 July, 2017.
World Bank (2015), Global Tracking Framework Report, Progress towards Sustainable Energy 2015," Retrieved from http://www.se4all.org/sites/default/files/GTF-2105-Full-Report.pdf as on 16 June, 2017.
World Economic Forum (2016), "The Global Gender Gap Report," Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/ as on 19 June, 2017.