Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Total views : 545

Rural Employment Diversification in North East India: An Analysis

Affiliations

  • Department of Economics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India

Abstract


Situational analysis of rural non-farm employment (RNFE) space in the North East India shows presence of severe regional variation. It also exhibits very high magnitude of feminisation and casualisation of employment in the construction sub-sector of RNFE. Although, the gender gap in the RNFE space in this region has virtually disappeared, gender deprivation is very much present and disquieting. This is reflected when women workers are increasingly pushed to undertake supportive, residual, casual and non-remunerative works vis-à-vis men workforce. Process analysis of structural transformation process of RNFE in north east region (NER) explains the role of both developmental as well as distress factors. The important identified developmental factors happen to be household income from agriculture, access to credit and distance from nearest urban centre. Poverty of households has emerged as one of the important distress factors pushing households to go in for non-farm activities as a strategy of survival. However, looking at the abrupt feminsation and casualisation aspects of women's employment during the period from 2004-05 to 2009-10, the distress factors seem to have acted heavy on the growth of RNFE in this region.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 0)

References


  • Chadha, G K (1993), “Non-Farm Employment for Rural Households: Evidence and Prognosis,”Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol 38, No. 3, pp. 296-327.
  • Chenery, HB (1960), “Patterns of Industrial Growth,”American Economic Review, Vol 50, No. 4, pp. 624654.
  • Clark, Colin (1940), “Conditions of Economic Progress,” London: Macmillan & Co Ltd.
  • Dirven, Martine (2011): “Non-farm Rural Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction: What We know in Latin America in 2010,” Paper Presented at the IFAD Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture, Rome, Italy, 24-25, January 2011, available at http://www.ifad.org/events/agriculture/ doc/papers/dirven.pdf, accessed on 11 September 2015.
  • Fisher, AGB (1939), “Production: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary,” Economic Record, Vol 15, No. 1, pp. 24-38.
  • Hazell and Haggblade (1991), “Rural-Urban Growth Linkages in India,” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol 46, No. 4, pp. 515-529.
  • Hymer, S and SResnick (1969), “A Model of Agrarian Economy with Non-Agricultural Activities,” American Economic Review, Vol 59, No. 4, pp. 493-506.
  • ILO (1984), “Promotion of Employment and Income for Rural Poor Including Rural Women through Non-Farm Activities,” International Labour Organisation, Geneva.
  • Jha, Brajesh (2006), “Rural Non-Farm Employment in India: Macro-Trends, Micro-Evidences and Policy Options,” Delhi: Agricultural Economics Unit, Institute of Economic Growth.
  • Jonasson, E and Helfand, S (2010), “How Important are Locational Characteristics for Rural Nonagricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil,” World Development, Vol 38, No. 5, pp. 727-741.
  • Kaur, Simrit, V Kulkarni, R Gaiha and M Pandey (2010), “Prospects of Non-Farm Employment and Welfare in Rural Areas,” ASARC Working Paper No. 5/2010.
  • Kuznets, S (1966), “Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structure and Spread,” New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Lahoti, Rahul and Hema Swaminathan (2013),”Economic Growth and Female Labour Force Participation in India,” IIM Bangalore Working Paper No. 414, June.
  • Lewis, WA(1954),”Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour,” The Manchester School, Vol 22, No. 2, pp. 139-191.
  • Mellor, John W (1976), “The New Economics of Growth: A Strategy for India and the Developing World,” London: Cornell University Press.
  • Mishra, Deepak (2007), “Rural Non-Farm Employment in Arunachal Pradesh-Growth, Composition and Determinants,” NLI Research Studies Series, No. 075, June.
  • NSS0 (1994), “Reports on Employment and Unemployment, 50th Round,” Department of Statistics.
  • ———— (1999), “Reports on Employment and Unemployment, 55th Round,” Department of Statistics.
  • ———— (2005), “Reports on Employment and Unemployment, 61st Round,” Department of Statistics.
  • ———— (2010), “Reports on Employment and Unemployment, 66th Round,” Department of Statistics.
  • Panda, B (1999), ‘Growth, Composition and Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Employment in Arunachal Pradesh,” The Indian Journal of Labor Economics, Vol 42, No. 2, pp. 283-289.
  • Panda, B (2012), “Growth, Composition and Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Employment in North East India,” NLI Research Studies Series, No. 097.
  • Pandey, Aviral and Raman Rakesh (2012), “Rural Non-Farm Economy in India: A Study of Uttar Pradesh,” Journal of Community Positive Practices, Issue No. 2, pp. 222-239.
  • Samal, K C (1997), “Features and Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Sector in India and Orissa-A Survey,”Journal of Indian School of Political Economy, Vol 9, No. 1, pp. 65-93.
  • Sharad, Ranjan (2009), “Growth of Rural Non-Farm Employment in Uttar Pradesh: Reflections from Recent Data,” Economic & Political Weekly, Vol 44, No. 04, pp. 63-70.
  • Srivastav, N. and Amaresh Dubey (2002), “Rural Non-farm Employment in India: Spatial Variations and Temporal Change”, Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol 45, No.1, pp. 745-758.
  • Unni, J (1991), “Regional Variation in Rural Non-Agricultural Employment: An Exploratory Analysis,” Economic Political Weekly, Vol 26, No.3, pp. 109-122.
  • Vaidyanathan, A., (1986), “Labour Use in Rural India: A Study of Spatial and Temporal Variation,” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.21, No. 52, pp. A 130-146.
  • Verma, Binoy N and Verma Neelam (1995), “Distress Diversification from Farm to Non-Farm Employment Sector in the Eastern Region” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol 50, No. 3, pp. 422-29.
  • World Bank (1978), “Rural Enterprise and Non-Farm Employment,” Washington DC.
  • World Bank (1996), “Ecuador Poverty Report,” World Bank Country Study, Washington DC.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.