Development of Sustainable Livelihood Security Index for Different Agro-Climatic Zones of Uttar Pradesh, India


  • Surendra Singh Faculty, ICAR- National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, DPS Marg, PUSA, New Delhi
  • Sanatan Nayak Professor, Department of Economics, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow



Sustainable Livelihood Security Index, Agro-Climatic Zones, Regional Disparities.


The present study has attempted to examine the livelihood status of nine agro-climatic zones (ACZs) in the State of Uttar Pradesh in India. The United National Development Programme’s (UNDP) methodology has adopted to develop a practical, innovative and ready-to-use sustainable livelihood security index (SLSI) for different ACZs. A total of 84 rational indicators were employed that covered seven dimensions of livelihood security, i.e. infrastructure security, agricultural sustainability, economic security, social security, food security, environmental security, and health security. The quintile estimation was also employed to identify low productive districts with reference to Uttar Pradesh. The performance of ACZs in terms of estimated indices for different dimensions of SLSI has also compared and ranked across developmental indicators. Study findings revealed that Bundelkhand zone has the lowest livelihood security than that of other ACZs. Least access of basic amenities, least social and health security, and higher reliance on agriculture for livelihoods were the main influencing indicators responsible for lower livelihood security in Bundelkhand zone. At the same time, better infrastructural and health facilities and least reliance on agriculture for livelihoods were main contributing indicators for the highest livelihood security in Vindhyan Zone. The present study’s findings also matched with the results of studies conducted by the Planning Commission and NITI Aayog. The policy insights from the analysis suggest the need for prioritising vulnerable and less developed ACZs to arrest regional imbalances, prevent overexploitation and to leverage the unutilised potential of the districts.


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How to Cite

Singh, S., & Nayak, S. (2020). Development of Sustainable Livelihood Security Index for Different Agro-Climatic Zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Rural Development, 39(1), 110–129.

Author Biography

Surendra Singh, Faculty, ICAR- National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, DPS Marg, PUSA, New Delhi

Research Associate


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