Transformation From Model Village to Model Tourist Village: The Missing Link
Keywords:Rural Tourism, Adarsh Paryatan Gram, Model Village, Village Transformation, Rural Development.
Padawali Gram Panchayat, located in Morena district of Madhya Pradesh, is known for monuments like Garhi Padawali fortress and Bateshwar group of temples, protected by Archeological Survey of India. Padawali has an agro-oriented economy, where the livelihood of most residents depends on agriculture and related works. Due to lack of employment opportunities and inadequate wages, locals are reeling under poverty and are migrating to neighbouring cities for better prospects. The village is enlisted for consideration under various government policies for infrastructure development, skill development, employment and heritage conservation. Despite these policy implementations, the government failed to generate employment for the locals and did not establish a sense of cultural pride. This gap can be identified and filled by bringing tourism to the village. Padawali village has almost all the attributes that can transform it into a rural tourism site or Adarsh Paryatan Gram. Rural tourism can help the villages to become self-sustenance, earn recognition to local’s art & craft and support its rejuvenation, etc. This study investigated various government policies and identified the gaps that hinder the transformation of Padawali into a model tourist village or Adarsh Paryatan Gram. The findings can help other villages to identify their constraints.
How to Cite
Agrawal, A. (2021). Benchmarking Potential of Village Tourism in India: Case of Selected Rural Destinations. Retrieved on 02-27-2020 from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8443/jspui/ handle/10603/401058
Agrawal, A., & Dixit, S. (2019). Tourism as a Tool to alleviate Rural Migration: A Case of Kanatal and a Nearby Village in Garhwal Region, Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Management , 83-92.
Agrawal, A., Mathur, G., & Sharma, R. A. (2021). Urban Tourists and Rural Tourism Destinations: A Study of Amidst Perception. Splint International Journal of Professionals, 8(1), 82-91.
Archeological Survey of India, Bhopal Circle. (n.d.). Morena. Retrieved on 27-2-2020 from https:// asibhopal.nic.in/monument/morena.html
Beniušienė, I., & Jankauskienė, A. (2021). Green Transportation in the Šiauliai Regional Companies. Rural Sustainability Research, 46(341), 31-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/plua-2021-0015
Bhuiyan, M., Siwar, C., Ismail, S., & Islam, R. (2012). The Role of Ecotourism for Sustainable Development in East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(9), 53-60.
Buckley, R. (2000). Neat Trends: Current Issues in Nature, Eco and Adventure Tourism. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2(6), 437-444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-1970(200011/12)2:6<437::AID-JTR245>3.0.CO;2-#
Castañeda, J. A., Frías, D. M., & Rodríguez, M. A. (2007). The Influence of the Internet on Destination Satisfaction. Internet Research, 17, 402-420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/10662240710828067
Census Population. (2011). Padhawali Population - Morena, Madhya Pradesh. Retrieved on 02-27-2020, from https://www.census2011.co.in/data/village/452240-padhawali-madhya-pradesh.html
Cerić, D. (2016). Overestimating the Role of Tourism in Rural Areas on the Example of Selected Regions in Poland and Croatia. Studia Obszarów Wiejskich, 43 Multifunctional Development in Rural Spaces: Challenges for Policy and Planning, 73–83. https://doi.org/10.7163/SOW.43.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7163/SOW.43.5
Chandralal, K. L. (2010). Impacts of Tourism and Community Attitude towards Tourism: A Case Study in Sri Lanka. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 3(2), 41-49.
Cui, Q., & Li, Y. (2015). An Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors of Transportation Carbon Efficiency: Evidences from Fifteen Countries. Applied Energy, 141, 209-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.040
Dubey, S. (2022). Recently Discovered Jain Sculptures from Padavali in Morena District of Madhya Pradesh. In P. Reddy, Nagabharana: Recent Trends in Jainism Studies (pp. 277-282). Bluerose Publishers.
Fisher, D. G. (2006). The potential for rural heritage tourism in the Clarence Valley of Northern New South Wales. Australian Geographer, 37(3), 411-424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180600954815
Gilbert, D. (1989). Rural Tourism and Marketing: Synthesis and New Ways of Working. Tourism Management, 10, 39-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(89)90033-2
Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. B. (2006). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. New Delhi: John Wiley and Sons.
Gordon, A. T. (2000). Solid Waste Management. New York: MC Graw Hill.
Haldar, P. (2021). Niche Tourism in Rural Areas: A Case Study of India. ISBR Management Journal, 6 (1), 42-55.
Hall, C. M. (2014). Tourism and Social Marketing. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203854259
Hall, D. R., Kirkpatrick, I., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business. Channel View Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845410131
Hwang, J., & Lee, S. (2015). The Effect of the Rural Tourism Policy on Non-farm Income in South Korea. Tourism Management, 501-513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.07.018
Brand Equity Foundation. (2019). Tourism & Hospitality Industry in India. Retrieved on 28-02-2020 from https://www.ibef.org/industry/tourism-hospitality-india.aspx
Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., & Pomares, L. M. (2018). Electrification of a Tourist Village Using Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems, Sarakhiyeh in Iran. Journal of Solar Energy Research, 3(3), 201-211.
Kalam, A. A., & Singh, S. P. (2011). Target 3 Billion: PURA: Innovative Solutions towards Sustainable Development. Penguin Books India, New Delhi.
Kamyotra, J.S. and Bhardwaj, R.M. (2011) Municipal Wastewater Management in India. India Infrastructure Report, 299-311.
Knudsen, D. C., & Rickly-Boyd, J. M. (2012). Tourism Sites as Semiotic Signs: A Critique. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 1252-1254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.12.005
Kwon, Y., Kim, S., & Byun, J. (2020). Cognitive Perception of an Eco-friendly Public Transportation: Using Principal Component Analysis. The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems, 19 (1), 71-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12815/kits.2020.19.1.71
LaPan, C., & Barbieri, C. (2014). The Role of Agritourism in Heritage Preservation. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(8), 666-673. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.849667
Lu, S., Li, G., & Xu, M. (2020). The Linguistic Landscape in Rural Destinations: A Case Study of Hongcun Village in China. Tourism Management, 77, 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104005
Lyu, S. O., & Lee, H. (2015). Preferences for tourist information centres in the ubiquitous information environment. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(11), 1032-1047. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.912205
Madhya Pradesh Tourism. (2017). Mitawali, Padavali & Bateshwar - A Collection of Historic Architectural Beauty. Retrieved on 05-03-2020 from http://www.mptourism.com/blog/mitawali-padavali-bateshwar.html
Mathew, V. (2009). Sustainable Tourism: A Case of Destination Competitiveness in South Asia. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 2(1), 83-89.
Meena, S. (2015). Rural Tourism Impact, Challenges and Opportunities in Rajasthan. The Journal of Bengal Geographer, 4(4).
Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. (2011). Rural Tourism Scheme for Infrastructure Development. Retrieved on 19-02-2020 from http://tourism.gov.in/sites/default/files/Guideline_12.pdf
MoRD, GoI. (2014). Detailed Report of Gram Panchayats Identified for Saanjhi (Phase I). Retrieved on 27-02-2020 from https://bit.ly/3sKPiBW
MoRD, GoI. (2014). Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana- Guidelines. Retrieved on 22-02-2020 from http:// saanjhi.gov.in/pdf/guidelines_english.pdf
MoRD, GoI. (2017). SAGY- PRC Meeting. Retrieved on 27-02-2020, from https://rural.nic.in/sites/default/ files/SAGY_PRC_17Nov2017.pdf
MoRD, GoI. (2019). Success Stories-Madhya Pradesh. Retrieved on 22-02-2020 from http://saanjhi.gov.in/ SaanjhiMIS/works/Success_Story_list.aspx
MoT. (2021). Around 120 Crores Sanctioned by Tourism Ministry. Retrieved on 22-02-2020 from https:// tourism.gov.in/sites/default/files/2021-12/PIB1778554.pdf
MoT, GoI. (2011). Rural Tourism Scheme for Infrastructural Development: Scheme Guidelines. Retrieved on 24-02-2020 from http://tourism.gov.in/sites/default/files/Guideline_12.pdf
MoT, GoI. (2014). Swadesh Darshan: Scheme Guidelines for Integrated Development of Theme-Based Tourist Circuits in the Country. Retrieved on 22-02-2020 from http://swadeshdarshan.gov.in/ Guidelines%20final.pdf
MoT, GoI. (2016). Heritage Circuit. Retrieved on 22-02-2020 from http://swadeshdarshan.gov.in/index.php? Theme/themeDetail/5
MoT, GoI. (2019). India Tourism Statistics at a Glance 2019. Retrieved on 28-02-2020 from http:// tourism.gov.in/sites/default/files/Other/India%20Tourism%20Statistics%20at%20a%20Glance% 202019.pdf
Nagaraju, L., & Chandrashekhar, B. (2014). Rural Tourism and Rural Development in India. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(6), 42-48.
NIRDPR. (2015). SAGY-Sankalan. Retrieved on 27-02-2020 from http://nirdpr.org.in/nird_docs/sagy/ sankalan-part1.pdf
Oppermann, M. (1997). Rural Tourism in Germany: Farm and Rural Tourism Operators. The Business of Rural Tourism: International Perspectives, 108-119.
Press Information Bureau. (2019, June 25). Projects Sanctioned under Swadesh Darshan and Prashad Schemes of Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved on 27-02-2020 from https://pib.gov.in/ Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1575667
Ramamritham, G. (2019). Agri-Tourism: Potential & Challenge. Kurukshetra, 67(6), 34-36.
Ramón-Hidalgo, A.-E., & Harris, L. M. (2018). Social Capital, Political Empowerment and Social Difference: A Mixed-Methods Study of an Ecotourism Project in the Rural Volta Region of Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(12), 2153-2172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1546711
Roberts, L., & Hall, D. (2001). Rural Tourism and Recreation: Principles to Practice. CABI Publishing, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851995403.0000
Rosalina, P. D., Dupre, K., & Wang, Y. (2021). Rural Tourism: A Systematic Literature Review on Definitions and Challenges. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 47, 134–149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.03.001
SAGY. (2022). SAGY, MoRD. Retrieved on 27-02-2020 from https://saanjhi.gov.in/NationalReport.aspx
Sastry, E.V. (2003). Village electrification programme in India. Proceedings of3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 3, 2125-2128.
Saurav, K. (2020). These Destinations in India Should Put Restrictions on the Tourist Influx Immediately. Retrieved on 19-02-2020 from https://bit.ly/3IKYdcp
Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Mahmood, G., & Trivedi, R. (2008). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities–A Review. Waste Management, 28(2), 459-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.008
Sharpley, R., & Sharpley, J. (1997). Rural Tourism. An Introduction. International Thomson Business Press, London.
Singh, A., & Gupta, S. (2018). Understanding Residents’ Perception of Rural Tourism Development in Central India: An Empirical Study. Journal of Rural Development, 37(4), 621-640. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25175/jrd/2018/v37/i4/110830
Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., leckie, & Pomfret, G. (2003). Adventure Tourism: The New Frontier. In Adventure Tourism: The New Frontier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-5186-8.50017-9
Thibal, S. (1998). Rural Tourism in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Tirkolaee, E. B., Mahdavi, I., & Esfahani, M. S. (2018). A Robust Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem for Urban Waste Collection Considering Drivers and Crew’s Working Time. Waste Management, 76, 138-146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.015
UNWTO. (2019). Rural Tourism. Retrieved on 07-02-2020 from https://www.unwto.org/rural-tourism
Wong, C. U., & McKercher, B. (2011). Tourist Information Center Staff as Knowledge Brokers: The Case of Macau. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 481-498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2010.10.003
World Travel & Tourism Council. (2019). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2019 World. Retrieved on 28-02-2020 from https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2019/ world2019.pdf
WTTC. (2019). Benchmarking Research Trends 2019. World Travel & Tourism Council, London.
Zahnd, A., & Kimber, H. M. (2009). Benefits from a Renewable Energy Village Electrification System. Renewable Energy, 34(2), 362-368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.011